The Six Root Afflictions


1.  Desire.

                               Definition: Secondary mind that has been attached to a contaminated       favorable object and it is very hard to separate from this object.

There are two types of attachments

     A. Desire realm’s attachment and  

     B. Samsaric attachment.


2.  Anger.


Definition:  Secondary mind that is emotionally detached from the object that is apparently taking a basis of suffering. 

Function:  Being a source of all ill deeds. Anger is actually focusing on       objects that are sentient beings, sufferings and the conditions that give rise to sufferings.

Effects of this delusion are:

A.  Unable to rest in a pleasant state.

B.  Having fallen in a destructive  state, it becomes  very hard  for  you  to  think  of  others’  kindness,  and  very  easy  to  make   more enemies.

C.  You will be disliked by your own relatives, further destroying more deeply your reputation.


3.  Pride.

   Definition:   The secondary mind that has a sense of being filled up, that is by focusing on object of self grasping with characters such as seeing the self as being superior or the best. 

Function:  You disrespect toward other people and that is the basis of suffering. Division: Seven types of pride.



4.  Ignorance.


Definition: Having wrong perception or not knowing on constructive and destructive mind and their results. 

Function: Giving rise to all kind of delusions, this is the door for defective actions.

  5.  Doubtfulness.

Definition: Secondary mind that doubts on the four noble truths and             the law of cause and effect,  in  terms  of  virtues action has happy  result and non virtues  actions’  result  is  suffering. 

Function: A. Not letting you engage in the positive actions, B. Becomes an obstacle for generating realizations of what is right and wrong in terms of what need to be adopted and what need to be avoided.


6.  The Five Views.


(1) Viewing on transitory collection.
(2) Extreme view.
(3) Holding wrong view as superior.
(4) Holding bad ethics and discipline to be superior.
(5) Perverted view.

Definition: View of the transitory collection is deluded secondary mind that viewing I as substantially existent in the sense of being self-sufficient base on your five aggregates.

Function: Being the source of all kinds of delusions.


Twenty Secondary Afflictions




   Definition:    Secondary mind that desires to upset or annoy someone, by force of a very immediate condition that is likely to irritate you.

Function:  Expressing harsh words and raising hand to hit someone.




   Definition:   Not forgetting the condition that sustains your anger and always wanting to harm other.


Function:   Intolerable.




   Definition: Secondary mind that is concealing faults and non virtue                   things that are yours  and others’.     


Function:   Generating remorse and a continuously unpleasant mind.




   Definition:   Harmful thoughts that conditioned by resentment and                   caused by just guarding on your own belief.

Function: Produces an unpleasant mind and becomes the basis of                   violent acts of body and speech, thus increasing non virtues.





   Definition:  Secondary mind that is disrupted deeply with unbearable             feelings, just by seeing or  knowing  another’s  quality.


Function:  Producing unpleasant states of mind, caused by strong                   desire to possess material things and to have fame.





   Definition:  Secondary  mind  that  is  holding  tightly  onto  one’s                       resources.  


Function:  Being obstacles to letting out things.




   Definition:  Secondary mind which forces you to act as if you have                   gained superior quality, due to strong desire towards material gain and                fame.  


Function:   becoming basis of five wrong livelihoods. 


      The five wronglivelihoods is:

       A. Contrived Means   B. Flattery  

       C. Hinting    D. Seeking Reward for Favor   E. Using force.




  Definition:   Secondary mind that is in an act of finding ways to hide       your faults.

Function: Becomes an obstacle to receive ultimate teachings. The meaning of concealment and dissimulation is different: Concealment is the mere act of hiding your fault and dissimulation is finding ways of  your faults.




   Definition:  Secondary mind that magnifies or exaggerates your quality             and placing yourself in pleasant state.  


Function:  Become non conscientious.




   Definition:  Secondary mind with absence of sympathy for other people.  

Function:  Harming others.


Non Shame. 

   Definition:  Secondary mind that engaging in ill doing
with disregarding
you and dharma.


Function:  A constant companion with all delusions.



Non Embarrassment. 

   Definition: Secondary mind that engaging in ill doing and with no         disregard to others. This definition is from Sutra school, according to the     Abidharma text.

The meaning of non shame and non embarrassment are different.

The non-shame is having no respect to the person who you should respect.

Non-embarrassment is having no sense of guilt in wrong doing.




  Definition:  Secondary mind that produces heavy feeling on physical and  mental state and not being active whatever the object you may think of.

Function:  Becoming lethargic and sleepy that you put no interest into the dharma practice. Also produces thick dense metal states and unclear verbal expression.





   Definition: Secondary mind that tends to wander out to the attractive                 sign and the pursuit of desire object.

Function: Obstructing for concentration and sort of attachment.

Themeaning of wandering mind and mental excitement are different.

Wandering mind generates virtue, non virtue, and neutral states.

Mental excitement has no virtue, it generates non virtue and neutral state.




Non Faith. 

   Definition: Secondary mind that has no sense of believing in cause and          effect in terms of virtue and non virtue action and the qualities of Buddha           dharma and Sangha and dislike them.


Function: Basis for laziness in the sense of virtues’ actions.






Definition: Secondary mind that has no interest in any virtuous activity.


Function: Obstacle for virtuous activities.




Non conscientiousness. 

   Definition:  Secondary mind when you are engaging in virtuous deeds               but  not  avoiding  from  negative  mind and  not  making  a good  effort               in virtues’  action.

Function: increases non virtue.





Definition:  Secondary mind often forgetting in virtuous deed and being obscured by constantly going after deluded mind. Secondary mind that is constantly going after deluded mind and not letting you recall something you must think of.   

Function:  Basis of wandering state of mind.



Non introspection. 

   Definition:  Secondary mind that is involved in the actions from body, speech, and mind without understanding in terms of what is right or wrong.

Function:  Becoming a basis of ill deed and down fall deed.



Mental distraction. 

   Definition: Secondary mind out of one of three poisons [attachment, anger, ignorance] is wandering and not being able to focus.

Function: Obstacle for abandonment of attachment.


   Karma (Actions)

Virtuous actions and non virtuous actions which have potential to give rise to results that are pleasant and unpleasant states.


Contemplate on what is virtue, what is non virtue, and what is neutral state.


Through this virtue may all sentient being gain realization of and free from afflictive emotions, achieved permanent state of peace. 




 Internet Teaching  |  Handouts  |  YouTube Video