Chapter Eleven: Refuting Truly Existent Time


The present pot and the past one

Do not exist in the future pot.

Since both would be future,

The future would not exist. [11.251]


If a disintegrated thing exists as

A future entity in the future,

How can what is future in nature

Become that which is past? [11.252]


Because of being future in nature

A future functional thing

Is thus present

And cannot be future. [11.253]


If the future, past and present exist,

What does not exist?

How can there be impermanence

For one for whom all times exist? [11.254]


If it has passed beyond the past

Why is it the past?

If it has not passed beyond the past

Why is it the past? [11.255]


If the future is produced

Why is it not present?

If it is unproduced

Is the future permanent or what? [11.256]


If the future is impermanent because

Though not produced it disintegrates,

Since the past does not disintegrate

Why not consider it permanent? [11.257]


If the past and present

Are not impermanent,

The third which is different

From these is also not. [11.258]


If a thing which will be produced

Later exists beforehand,

The contention of Niyativadins

Is not erroneous. [11.259]


To say something which will be made to occur

Already exists is unreasonable.

If that which exists is produced,

What has been produced will arise again. [11.260]


If future things are seen,

Why is the non-existent not seen? [11.261ab]


For one for whom the future exists

There can be no distant [time]. [11.261cd]


If virtue exists though nothing is done,

Resolute restraint is meaningless.

If even a little is done

The effect cannot exist. [11.262]


If they are impermanent

How can it be said effects exist?

That which has a beginning and end

Is called impermanent in the world. [11.263]


Liberation will occur without exertion.

For the liberated there is no future,

Or otherwise, if this were so,

Desire would arise without attachment. [11.264]


For those who assert effects exist,

And for those who assert they do not exist,

Adornments like pillars and so forth

For a home are purposeless. [11.265]


The transformation of things also

Is not perceived even by the mind.

Those who lack wisdom nevertheless

Think that the present exists. [11.266]


How can there be things with no duration?

Being impermanent, how can they endure?

If they had duration first,

They would not grow old in the end. [11.267]


Just as a single consciousness

Cannot apprehend two objects,

Similarly two consciousnesses

Cannot apprehend one object. [11.268]


If time has duration

Duration is not time.

If it has not, without duration

There will also be no end. [11.269]


If impermanence and things are separate

Things are not impermanent.

If they are one, since things are precisely that which is

Impermanent, how can they have duration? [11.270]


If duration is not weak

Because impermanence is weak,

Why should a reversal

Afterwards be seen? [11.271]


If impermanence is not weaker

And is present in all things,

None of them will have duration

Or not all are impermanent. [11.272]


If there is always impermanence

There cannot always be duration,

Or else that which was permanent

Later becomes impermanent. [11.273]


If things have duration

And impermanence together,

Either it is wrong that things are impermanent,

Or duration is a fallacy. [11.274]


Things seen do on reappear,

Nor does awareness arise again.

Thus memory is in fact deceived

With regard to a deceptive object. [11.275]


The summarizing stanza:


Not knowing . how to posit continuity and transitoriness,

They say time is permanent and the three times exist subsdtantially.

Having understood that phenomena are like optical illusions,

Learn how the three times are perceived.


This is the eleventh chapter of the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing how to meditate on refuting time.



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