Chapter Sixteen: Refuting Remaining Counter-Arguments



For various reason, that which is empty

Appears nonetheless as if not empty.

These are refuted individually

By all the chapters. [16.376]


When the author and subject also exist

It is incorrect to call them empty. [16.377ab]


Also with regard to these three, whatever

Arises in dependence does not exist. [16.377cd]


If through flaws concerning emptiness

[Things] were established as not empty,

Why would emptiness not be established

Through flaws concerning lack of emptiness? [16.378]


In refuting the thesis of others

And in proving your own thesis,

If on the one hand you like to disprove,

Why do you not like to prove? [16.379]


When thoroughly investigated,

The non-existent is not a thesis. [16.380ab]


Then all three, such as oneness,

Also are not theses. [16.380cd]


Where a pot is directy perceptible,

The argument of emptiness is meaningless. [16.381ab]


Here reasons appearing in textural systems

Are not [acceptable]; elsewhere they are. [16.381cd]


Where there is nothing that is not empty

How can emptiness be so?

When the one does not exist,

Why should the antidote exist? [16.382]


If there were a thesis, absence of the thesis

Would in entity be a thesis,

But where there is no thesis

What can be the counter-thesis? [16.383]


How can fire be hot,

When tings do not exist?

This was refuted above: it was said

That even hot fire does not exist. [16.384]


If through seeing things one could refute

The statement that things do not exist,

Who then sees the elimination

Of fallacies regarding all four theses?  [16.385]


When there is nowhere, even in particles,

A truly existent entity, how can it occur?

Even for Buddhas, it does not exist,

Thus it is irrelevant. [16.386]


If they are not twofold, how can

Anything have an existent entity?

If that is reasonable to you also,

Why raise further arguements? [16.387]


Regarding the non-functional [aspect] of all things,

Differentiations are inapproopriate.

That which is seen in all substantial entities

Is not diffferentiable. [16.388]


If owing to non-existence you claim

No reply is made to the other's thesis,

Why should you not also prove

Your own thesis which is refuted by reasons? [16.389]


Though the world says it is easy

To find reasons with which to refute,

Why can the errors regarding

The others' thesis not be stated? [16.390]


If just by saying "They exist"

Things really did exist,

Why should they not also be non-existent

Just by saying "They do not exist"? [16.391]


If a thing is not non-existent

Because the term "existent" is ascribed,

Neither is it existent

Because the term "existent" is applied. [16.392]


If everything is a convention

Because expressed by ordinary people,

How can anything which exists

As [its own] suchness be a convention? [16.393]


If things are non-existent because

Things all do not exist,

In that case it is incorrect that all theses

Concern the non-existence of things. [16.394]


Since a thing does not exist

A non-thing cannot exist.

Without a thing's existence,

How can a non-thing be established? [16.395]


If things are not empty because

They are empty by virtue of reasons,

The thesis would not be distinct from the reasons,

And thus the reasons would not exist. [16.396]


If things are not empty because

There are analogies for emptiness,

Can one say, "Just like the crow,

So too the self is black"? [16.397]


If things exist inherently

What good is it to perceive emptiness?

Perception by way of conceptions binds.

This is refuted here. [16.398]


To say one exists and the other does not

Is neither reality nor the conventional.

Therefore it cannot be said

That this exists but that does not. [16.399]


Against one who holds no thesis that [things]

Exist, do not, or do and do not exist,

Counter-arguments cannot be raised

No matter how long [one tries]. [16.400]


The summarizing stanza:


The sun's light dispels all darkness

Darkness has no power to destroy the sun's light

The correct view destroys all extreme conceptions,

Banishing any opportunity for controversy.


This is the sixteenth chapter of the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing how to meditate on setting the procedure between spiritual guides and students.


                                                         <- Prev