Chapter Fifteen: Refuting Truly Existent Characteristics



How can the non-existent be produced,

If what does not exist at the last is produced?

How can that which exists be produced,

If what exists from the outset is produced? [15.351]


Since the effect destroys the cause,

That which does not exist will not be produced. [15.352ab]


Nor will that which exists be produced

Since what is established needs no establisher. [15.352cd]


There is no production at that time,

Nor is there production at another.

If not produced at that time nor another,

When will there ever be production? [15.353]


Just as there is no production

Of that as the thing it is,

Neither is it produced

As something else. [15-354]


The first, intermediate and last

Are not possible prior to production. [15.355ab]


How can each begin

Without the other two? [15.355cd]


The thing itself does not occur

Without other things.

Thus there is no coming into existence.

Either from self or from other. [15.356]


It cannot be said to exist

Before, after or simultaneously.

Therefore production does not occur

Simultaneously with the pot. [15.357]


That which was previously produced

Was not old when first produced.

Also that which afterwards has been

Consantly produced is not old. [15.358]


A present thing does not

Come into existence from itelf,

Nor come into exstence from the future,

And also not from the past. [15.359]


There is no coming of the produced,

Likewise no going of that which has ceased.

Since it is thus, why should existence>

Not be like a magician's illusion? [15.360]


Production, duraton and disintergration

Do not occur simultaneously.

If they are not consecutive either,

When can they ever occur? [15.361]


If for production and all the others,

All of these occurred again,

Disintegration would seem like production

And duration like disintegration. [15.362]


If that which is characterized is said to be

Different from its characteristics,

How can the characterized be impermanent?

Alternatively, existence of all four is unclear. [15.363]


A thing is not produced from a thing

Nor is a thing produced from a non-thing.

A non-thing is not produced from a non-thing

Nor is a non-thing produced from a thing. [15.364]


A thing does not become a thing,

Nor does a non-thing become a thing.

A non-thing does not become a non-thing

Nor does a thing become a non-thing. [15.365]


A thing in the process of production

Since half-produced, is not being produced.

Alternatively it follows that everything

Is in the process of being produced. [15.366]


That which has the nature of presently being produced

Is not in the process of production

Nor is that in the process of production

Which lack the nature of presently being produced. [15.367]


For anyone to whom the two are

Impossible without an intermediate,

There is nothng in the process of production,

For it too would have an intermediate. [15.368]


Since the process of production is the arising

Of the produced through cessation,

That which is presently being produced

Appears to be a different entity. [15.369]


When a thing is produced there cannot be

Anything in the process of production. [15.370ab]


If the produced is in the process

Of production, why is it being produced? [15.370cd]


A thing in the process of production is said

To be the entirely unproduced arising.

Since there is no difference, why should the pot

Not be considered as non-existent? [15.371]


That which is presently being produced,

Though incompelete, is other than unproduced.

Yet also since other than produced,

The unproduced is being produced. [15.372]


That which is presently being produced,

Though not yet existent, is later said to exist.

The unproduced is thus being produced --

But the non-existent does not arise. [15.373]


The competed is called existent.

The uncompleted is called non-existent.

When there is nothing in the process of production

What is being referred to as such? [15.374] 


Since without a cause

There is no effect,

Both starting and stopping

Are not feasible. [15.375]




Production and disintegration of composite things

Are like dreams and like illusion.

When they are mere terms and mere imputation,

How could non-products be truly existent?


This is the fifteenth chapter of the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing how to meditate on the refutation of that which constitutes products.


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