Chapter Fourteen: Refuting Extreme Conceptions





If a thing did not depend

On anything else at all

It would be self-established,

But such a thing exists nowhere. [14.326]


"The form is a pot" - they are not one.

The pot that has form is not separate,

The pot does not have form,

Not does the form have a pot. [14.327]


Since the two are seen to have dissimilar

Characteristics, if the pot is separate

From existence, why would existence

Not also be separate from the pot? [14.328]


If one is not accepted as the pot

The pot also is not one. [14.329a]

Moreover possession is not reciprocal,

Therefore also it is not one. [14.329b]


If the form is the size of the substance,

Why is the form not large? [14.330ab]

If the opponent were not different,

Scriptural sources could be cited? [14.330cd]


By virtue of its characteristic

The characterized does not exist.

Such a thing has no existence

As something different from number and so forth. [14.328]


Because the pot is not separate

From its characteristics, it is not one. [14.332ab]

If there is not a pot for each,

Purality is not feasible. [14.332cd]


The tangible and the intangible

Cannot be said to coalesce.

Thus it is no way feasible

For these forms to coalesce. [14.333]


Form is a component of the pot

And thus, for a start, is not the pot. [14.334ab]

Since the compound does not exist,

Neither do the components. [14.334cd]


If the definition of form

Applies without incongruity

To all forms, for what reason

Is one a pot and not all others? [14.335]


If you assert that form is distinct from

Taste and so forth but not from the pot,

How can that which does not exist

Without these not be distinct from form? [14.336]


The pot has no causes

And is itself not an effect.

Thus there is no pot at all

Apart from form and so forth. [14.337]


If the pot exists by virtue of its causes

And those causes by virtue of others,

How can that which does not exist

By virtue of itself produce something disparate? [14.338]


Though they meet and come together

Form cannot be smell.

Therefore like the pot

The composite cannot be one. [14.339]


Just as the pot does not exist

Apart from form and so forth,

Likewise form does not exist

Apart from air and so forth. [14.340]


That which is hot is fire but how

Can that burn which is not hot?

Thus so-called fuel does not exist,

And without it fire too does not. [14.341]


Even if it is hot only when

Overpowered, why is it not fire?

Yet if not hot, to say fire contains

Something else is not plausible. [14.342]


If the particle has not fuel

Fire with fuel exists.

If even it has fuel, a single-natured

Particle does not exist. [14.343]


When different things are examined

None of them have singleness.

Because there is no singleness

There is no plurality either. [14.344]


Though they assert that where there are none

Of those things there is singleness,

Singleness does not exist

Since everything is threefold. [14.345]


The approach of existence, non-existence,

Both existence and non-existence, and neither,

Should always be applied by those

With mastery to oneness and so forth. [14.346]


When the continuum is misapprehended,

Things are said to be permanent.

Similarly when composites are

Misapprehended, things are said to exist. [14.347]


Anything that has dependent arising

Is not independent.

All these are not independent,

Therefore there is no self. [14.348]


Things do not assemble

Unless there is an effect.

Aggregation for an effect

Is not included for the Exalted. [14.349]


The awareness that is the seed of existence

Has objects as its sphere of activity.

When selflessness is seen in objects,

The seed of existence is destroyed. [14.350]





All who have gained a free and fortunate human body,

Following the reasoning of Nagarjuna and his son,

Should understand emptiness to mean dependent arising

Who would not make effort to achieve this end?


This is the fourteenth chapter of the Four Hundred on the Yogic Deeds, showing how to meditate on the refutation of extreme conceptions.


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