Chapter Nine: Refuting Permanent Functional Phenomena


All are produced for their effect,

Thus none are permanent.

There are no Tathagatas other than

Subduers [who know] things as they are. [9.201]


There is not anywhere anything

That ever exists without depending

Thus never is there anywhere

Anything that is permanent. [9.202]


There is no functional thing without a cause,

Nor anything permanent which has a cause.

Thus the one who knows suchness said what has

Come about causelessly does not exist. [9.203]


If the unproduced is permanent

Because impermanent [things] are seen to be products,

Seeing that the produced exists

Would make the permanent non-existent. [9.204]


That space and so forth are permanent

Is a conception of common beings.

For the wise they are not objects perceived

Even by conventional [valid cognition]. [9.205]


A single direction is not present

Wherever there is that which has directions.

That with directions therefore clearly

Also has other directional parts. [9.206]


Since time exists, functional things

Are seen to start and stop.

It is governed by other factors;

Thus it is also an effect. [9.207]


Any cause without an effect

Has no existence as a cause,

Therefore it follows that

Causes must be effects. [9.208]


When a cause undergoes change

It becomes the cause of something else.

Anything that undergoes change

Should not be called permanent. [9.209]


A thing with a permanent cause is produced

By that which has not come into being.

Whatever happens by itself

Cannot have a cause. [9.210]


How can that which is produced

By a permanent thing be impermanent?

Never are the two, cause and effect,

seen to have incongruent characeteristics. [9.211]


That of which some sides are causes

While other sides are not is thereby

*Multifarious. How can that

Which is multifarious be permanent? [9.212]


The cause which is spherical

Is not present in the effect.

Thus complete interpenetration

Of particles is not feasible. [9.213}


One particle's position is not

Asserted as also that of another.

Thus it is not asserted that

Cause and effect are the same size. [9.214]


Whatever has an eastern side

Also has an eastern part.

Those whose particles have sides admit

That they are not [partless] particles. [9.215]


The front takes up, the back relinquishes-

Whatever does not have

Both of these [motions]

Is not something which moves. [9.216]


That which does not have a front,

Nor any middle,

And which does not have a rear,

Being invisible, who will see it? [9.217]


The effect destroys the cause;

Therefore the cause is not permanent. [9.218ab]


Alternatively, where the cause

Exists the effect does not. [9.218cd]


A permanent thing that is obstructive

Is not seen anywhere.

Therefore Buddhas never say

That particles are permanent. [9.219]


If liberation, which is other than

What binds, is bound and the means existed,

It should not be called liberation

Since nothing is produced from it. [9.220]


In nirvana there are no aggregates

And there cannot be a person. [9.221ab]


What nirvana is there for one

Who is not seen in nirvana? [9.221cd]


When free from attachment at [the time of] liberation

What good is the existence of consciousness? [9.222ab]


Also to exist without consciousness

Is clearly the same as not existing. [9.222cd]


If at liberation a self existed

There could be a seed of consciousness. [9.223ab]


Without it there is no speculation

With regard to worldly existence. [9.223cd]


It is certain that those liberated

From suffering have no other [self].

Therefore the end of the self

Should always be affirmed as good. [9.224]


The conventional is preferable

But the ultimate never is.

Ordinary people have some [belief in this]

But none in the ultimate. [9.225]



*Multifarious: Having many and various aspects and parts.

*Composite: Made up of disparate and separate elements or parts.

*Disparate: Essentially different in kind; not allowing comparison.







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