Chapter Nine: Refuting Permanent Functional Phenomena


All are produced for their effect,

Thus none are permanent.

There are no Tathagatas other than

Subduers [who know] things as they are. [9.201]


There is not anywhere anything

That ever exists without depending

Thus never is there anywhere

Anything that is permanent. [9.202]


There is no functional thing without a cause,

Nor anything permanent which has a cause.

Thus the one who knows suchness said what has

Come about causelessly does not exist. [9.203]


If the unproduced is permanent

Because impermanent [things] are seen to be products,

Seeing that the produced exists

Would make the permanent non-existent. [9.204]


That space and so forth are permanent

Is a conception of common beings.

For the wise they are not objects perceived

Even by conventional [valid cognition]. [9.205]


A single direction is not present

Wherever there is that which has directions.

That with directions therefore clearly

Also has other directional parts. [9.206]


Since time exists, functional things

Are seen to start and stop.

It is governed by other factors;

Thus it is also an effect. [9.207]


Any cause without an effect

Has no existence as a cause,

Therefore it follows that

Causes must be effects. [9.208]


When a cause undergoes change

It becomes the cause of something else.

Anything that undergoes change

Should not be called permanent. [9.209]


A thing with a permanent cause is produced

By that which has not come into being.

Whatever happens by itself

Cannot have a cause. [9.210]


How can that which is produced

By a permanent thing be impermanent?

Never are the two, cause and effect,

seen to have incongruent characeteristics. [9.211]


That of which some sides are causes

While other sides are not is thereby

*Multifarious. How can that

Which is multifarious be permanent? [9.212]


The cause which is spherical

Is not present in the effect.

Thus complete interpenetration

Of particles is not feasible. [9.213}


One particle's position is not

Asserted as also that of another.

Thus it is not asserted that

Cause and effect are the same size. [9.214]


Whatever has an eastern side

Also has an eastern part.

Those whose particles have sides admit

That they are not [partless] particles. [9.215]


The front takes up, the back relinquishes-

Whatever does not have

Both of these [motions]

Is not something which moves. [9.216]


That which does not have a front,

Nor any middle,

And which does not have a rear,

Being invisible, who will see it? [9.217]


The effect destroys the cause;

Therefore the cause is not permanent. [9.218ab]


Alternatively, where the cause

Exists the effect does not. [9.218cd]


A permanent thing that is obstructive

Is not seen anywhere.

Therefore Buddhas never say

That particles are permanent. [9.219]


If liberation, which is other than

What binds, is bound and the means existed,

It should not be called liberation

Since nothing is produced from it. [9.220]


In nirvana there are no aggregates

And there cannot be a person. [9.221ab]


What nirvana is there for one

Who is not seen in nirvana? [9.221cd]


When free from attachment at [the time of] liberation

What good is the existence of consciousness? [9.222ab]


Also to exist without consciousness

Is clearly the same as not existing. [9.222cd]


If at liberation a self existed

There could be a seed of consciousness. [9.223ab]


Without it there is no speculation

With regard to worldly existence. [9.223cd]


It is certain that those liberated

From suffering have no other [self].

Therefore the end of the self

Should always be affirmed as good. [9.224]


The conventional is preferable

But the ultimate never is.

Ordinary people have some [belief in this]

But none in the ultimate. [9.225]


*Multifarious: Having many and various aspects and parts.

*Composite: Made up of disparate and separate elements or parts.

*Disparate: Essentially different in kind; not allowing comparison.


Discovering that external and internal dependently arising
Phenomena exist in reliance, and understanding
Their emptiness of existence. by way of their own enities.
Grow wise in the meaning of the middle way free from extremes.
This concludes the ninth chapter of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds, showing how to meditate on the refutation of permanent functional phenomena.


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