Chapter Twelve: Analysis of Suffering

Some say that suffering is produced by itself,
By something other, by both,
Or that it arises without a cause.
Such production is not possible. [12.1]

If suffering were produced by itself,
It could not arise in dependence,
Because, based on these aggregates,
Those aggregates arise. [12.2]

If those were something other than these,
And these were something other than those,
Suffering would be produced by something other,
And they would produce something other. [12.3]

If the person itself
Produces suffering,
Then what, apart from suffering,
Is this person who produces suffering? [12.4]

If suffering comes from a different person,
Then how, when produced by another person,
Could it be given to somebody
Who is something other than suffering? [12.5]

If suffering occurs because of another person,
Then who is this producer,
This other who gives suffering to another,
Yet who is not that very suffering? [12.6]

As it cannot be established to be produced by a self,
How could suffering be the product of another?
The suffering produced by the other
Is the product of that other itself. [12.7]

Suffering is not self-produced;
It is not its own product.
If the other is not the product of itself,
How could suffering be produced by another? [12.8]

If suffering were produced by each of these,
Then suffering would be the product of both.
Neither produced by self nor other,
How could suffering be uncaused? [12.9]

Not only does suffering
Not exist in any of these four ways,
External entities as well
Do not exist in any of the four ways. [12.10]          
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